California Early Math Project 2019

Introduction

In third grade, students continue to build upon their mathematical foundation as they focus on the operations of multiplication and division and the concept of fractions as numbers.

In previous grades, students developed an understanding of place value and used methods based on place value to add and subtract within 1000. They developed fluency with addition and subtraction within 100 and laid a foundation for understanding multiplication based on equal groups and the array model. Students also worked with standard units to measure length and described attributes of geometric shapes (adapted from Charles A. Dana Center 2012).

4 Critical Areas of Instruction

In third grade, instructional time should focus on four critical areas: (1) developing understanding of multiplication and division, as well as strategies for multiplication and division within 100; (2) developing understanding of fractions, especially unit fractions (fractions with a numerator of 1); (3) developing understanding of the structure of rectangular arrays and of area; and (4) describing and analyzing two-dimensional shapes (National Governors Association Center for Best Practices, Council of Chief State School Officers [NGA/CCSSO] 2010).

Students also work toward fluency with addition and subtraction within 1000 and multiplication and division within 100. By the end of grade three, students know all products of two one-digit numbers from memory.

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